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  Supply and Demand
Posted by: manisha_sbi - 06-16-2015, 07:22 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Advanced Bank Management - No Replies

Demand
The amount of a commodity that the consumers buy, depends on a no. of factors major being the price. Normally, higher the price of a
commodity, lower the quantity that consumers will buy. Hence, there is a relationship between the price of a commodity and quantity
demanded. This relationship can be expressed in the form of a demand schedule or demand curve.
Demand Schedule: It is a statement depicting the quantity demanded of a commodity at different prices. Demand can be drawn
based on demand schedule.
Law of demand (or Law of downward-sloping demand): As per this law, the quantity demanded of a commodity is related to its price
(other things remaining same). At a higher price, the quantity demanded is lower and at lower price, the quantity demanded is higher.
(There is inverse or negative relationship between two).
The quantity demanded may also be affected because of 2 other reasons (I) Substitution Effect, called Cross Demand (2) Income Effect
called income demand.
Cross demand relates to the effect on quantity demanded of a product, dueto~ehangein•price of-a related commodity. (Example : Effect on
demand for petrol, due to change in price of cars).
Income demand relates to the effect on quantity demanded of different-products, due to change in the income of the consumers.

causes of movement of demand curve (or fortes being the demand curve) : The demand curve movement is affected by the following
reasons:
1. Change in average income of the consumer affects the demand for commodities (increase in income leading to high demand).
2. Size of the market also affects the quantity demanded. (Delhi market for a particular commodity is much larger than the Patna market)
3. Price and availability of related commodities (increase in price of its substitute commodity, increases the demand for a commodity).
4.Taste and preference of certain goods, also affect their demand.
5. Seasonal factors also affect demand (say demand for umbrella in rainy season). Shift in demand
When there is change in demand of commodities due to factors other than the price, it is called shift in demand. These factors can
be change in income of consumers or change in prices of related commodities. This has been shown in the diagram given below.
In this case, there is increase in average income of the consumers, leading to increase in quantity demanded.
Supply Schedule: It shows relationship between the market price of a commodity and the quantity supplied by producers /
suppliers. Higher the price of a commodity, higher the quantity, the suppliers would like to supply. Lower the price, the
producers will tend to supply lower quantity.
Factors behind Supply Curve movement : The following factors affect the movement of a supply curve:
Cost of production to the manufacturer.When cost is low compared to market price, there is high profit and producers tend to
supply more. When cost is high, profit is low and producers will switch over to other products.
Prices of inputs : When input prices are high, it leads to low profit. Hence low production. Technological advancements : Better
technology brings the cost low. Hence more profit and more production. Prices of related commodities : If production of onesubstitute
increases, the production of other will decrease. Govt. policy : Environment and health issues determine the technology to be used. Tax and
wages laws increase the cost of production.
Shift in supply : Whenever there is change in supply of a commodities due to factors other than the price of that commodity, this is
called shift in supply, as reflected below:
Equilibrium of supply and demand
Depending upon their prices, the consumers demand different quantity of goods and sellers offer different quantity of commodities.
But the demand and supply interact to produce an equilibrium price and quantity or market equilibrium. In other words, the
market equilibrium is a situation where the forces of demand and supply are in balance. At that point there is no reason for
change in price, other things remaining same.

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  Fundamentals of Economics, Micro &Macro Economics and Economies
Posted by: devender - 06-15-2015, 07:18 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Advanced Bank Management - No Replies

Fundamentals of Economics, Micro &Macro Economics and Economies

DEFINITIONS
Economics has been defined by various economists as a science of wealth or study of man in ordinary business of life or study of wealth or of man or of human welfare etc. There are various sets of definitions of economics, as under:
Wealth definition : given by Adam Smith, David Recardo, J.V. Say and J.S. Mil.
Welfare definition : given by A Marshal.
Scarcity definition : given by L. Robbins.
Growth oriented definition : given by Henry Smith and Samuelson.
Definition of A. Smith : Economics is study of wealth.
Definition of A Marshal : Economics is a study of mankind in ordinary business of life.
Definition of L. Robbins : Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. It can be concluded that:
Human wants are unlimited. Means to satisfy the wants are limited. All economic activities are undertaken to satisfy human wants.
Resources have alternative uses also. With Rs.loo with you, you can have food or you can see a movie and not both. 4 Consumers have to make choice to make use of limited resources.
Micro and Macro Economics
The micro economics studies the basic or individual units, say a consumer or a household, in .the economy and includes:
Price determination of a commodity (demand theory and supply theory).
1)) Reward determination for factors of production i.e. land, labour, capital and enterprise (Distribution theory covering rent, wages,
interest profit respectively)
Micro economics - It is the study of individual units, small variables and individual pricing. But it is helpful in understanding the working of whole economy and including of private sector. Micro economics studies :
r) how the firms and house holds take decisions to allocate resourceS how their decisions and behaviour affect the supply and demand for
goods/services, which determine price
how price determines the demand and supply.
Macro economics - The macro economics on the other hand, takes into account the entire economy. Accordingly, it deals with
employment theory, income theory, theory of price level,
theory of growth and theory of distribution. As a result, it studies national income, national output, national expenditure, the level of
savings and investment and level of employment.
Central Problems of Economy
There are 3 problems before economic organisation:
1) what to produce and when to produce 2) how to produce (what resources to be used, what technology to use)3)for whom to
produce (who will be consumer of these goods)
Types of economics
Each economic structure takes in to account, 3 basic parameters i.e. (0 what to produce (2) how to produce (3) for whom to produce.
The economies are organized in two different ways of organizing and economy i.e. Govt. managed 11(1 market managed. These economics
are:
1. Market economy or capitalistic economy: In many countries of the world the economic st,.‘11-. follow the market economy
system. In this system, the firms and individual decide about
production and consumption. Firms produced commodities that earn for them the highest amount profit. Consumption is decided by
individual decisions. A market economy, where the govt. does not interfere is'called LAISSEZ-FAIRE economy.
Socialistic or Command Economy: In a command economy, all decisions regarding production and distribution are taken by the govt. The govt. owns most of the factors of production..
Mixed economy: In the present set up none of the above two economic systems actually function. Rather there is a mixed system. The
production and consumption decision are left tomarket but Govt. regulates the overall economic activities by enactment of rules, laws,
guidelines.

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  Case study - 3 : Effect of change of interest rates on net interest income
Posted by: manish - 06-12-2015, 07:39 PM - Forum: CASE STUDIES - No Replies

Effect of change of interest rates on net interest income

International Bank has the following repricing assets and liabilities:
Call money— Rs.300 cr , Cash credit loans — Rs.240 cr , Cash in hand - Rs.200 cr , saving banks - Rs . 300 cr  , fixed deposit - Rs . 300 cr , current deposit Rs . 250 cr 

On the basis of above information , answers following questions 
01. What is the adjusted gap in repricing assets and liabilities?: a)Rs.540 cr b)Rs.600 cr c)Rs.60 cr negative d)Rs.60 cr positive
02. What is the change in net interest income, if interest falls by 2% points across the board i.e. for all assets and liabilities?:a) improves by Rs.1.20 cr b)declines by Rs.1.20 cr c)changes by Rs.1 cr d) there is nochange

03) If the interest rates on assets and liabilities increase by 2%, what is the change in net interest income?:a)improves by Rs.1.20 cr b) declines by Rs.1.20 cr c)changes by Rs.1 cr d) there is no change 
04)If interest rate falls on call money by 1%, on Cash credit by 0.6%, on saving bank by 0.2% and on FD by 1%, what is change in net interest income?:a)improves by Rs.0.72 cr b)declines by Rs.0.82 cr c)decline by Rs.0.84 cr d)declines by Rs.0.96 cr 
05)If interest rate increases on call money by 0.5%, on Cash credit by 1%, on saving bank by 0.1% and on FD by 0.8%, what is change in net interest income?:

a)declines by Rs.1.05 cr
b)improves by Rs.0.90 cr 
c)declines by Rs.1.25 cr
d)improves by Rs.1.20 cr
Explanations: 01
Que-1: (SB + FD)— (Call money +CC) = (300 + 300)— (300 + 240) = Rs.60 cr (assets are less than liabilities — Hence negative gap). The
cash in hand and current account deposits are not subject to re-pricing as these are not interest bearing, hence these have been ignored.
Que-2: There is negative gap (interest bearing liabilities more) of Rs.60 cr [(300 + 300)— (300 + 240)], which means the interest cost declines
@2% on this negative gap, which leads to increase in NIL Hence it is Rs.60 cr x 2% = Rs.1.20 cr.
Que-3: There is negative gap of Rs.60 cr [(300 + 300)— (300 + 240)],3.00 cr) = 3.60 cr
Net fall in interest income = 4.44 cr—3.60 cr = 0.84 cr.
Que-4: Increase in interest amount in case of assets = (Call — 300 x 0.5% = 1.50 cr) + (Cash credit — 240 x 1% =2.40) = Rs. 3.90 cr.
Increase in interest amount in case of liabilities (SB— 300 x 0.1 = 0.30 cr) + (300 x 0.8% = 2.40 cr) = 2.70 cr
Net improvement = 3.90 cr—2.70 cr = 1.20 cr.

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  Case study - 2 : Calculation of Capital Fund (Non-Fund based)
Posted by: manish - 06-12-2015, 07:30 PM - Forum: CASE STUDIES - No Replies

Calculation of Capital Fund (Non-Fund based)

Universal Bank has allowed non-fund based credit facilities to its borrowers, the details of which are as under:
a) letters of credit for imports of goods and buying of domestic goods to various parties within the retail portfolio — Rs.1000 cr (out of this, to AAA rated companies 20% and the balance for BBB rated).
b) standby letters of credit serving as financial guarantees for credit enhancements — Rs.500 cr (Entire amount is to A rated companies)
c) Standby letters of credit related to particular transactions — Rs.200 cr (out of this to AA rated is 50% and balance amount is for unrated companies).
d) Performance bonds and bid bonds on behalf of their customers Rs.1000 cr (out of this 50% is to A rated and the balance for unrated
companies)
e) Financial guarantees—Rs.400 cr (on behalf of AA rated companies)
f) Letters of credit of other banks confirmed by Universal Bank for imports — Rs.100 cr

RBI guidelines on credit conversion factor (CCF) are as under:
1. Direct credit substitutes e.g. general guarantees of indebtedness(including standby L/Cs serving as financial guarantees for loans and
securities, credit enhancements, liquidity facilities for securitisation transactions), and acceptances (including endorsements with the
character of acceptance). (i.e., the risk of loss depends on the credit worthiness of the counterparty or the party against whom a potential
claim is acquired) : 100%
2. Certain transaction-related contingent items (e.g. performance bonds, bid bonds, warranties, indemnities, standby LC related to particular transaction) : 50%
3. Short-term self-liquidating trade letters of credit arising from the movement of goods (e.g. documentary credits collateralised by the
underlying shipment) for both issuing bank and confirming bank : 20% The rules relating to risk weight for corporates based on rating provide
as under:AAA rated — 20%, AA-30%, A-50%, BBB-100%, BB & Below-150%, unrated- 100%

Please calculate the total amount of risk weighted assets and the total capital fund requirement.
Solution: To calculate the risk weight and provide for capital, the non-fund based exposure will be first converted into the funded exposure by
applying the credit conversion factor.
Calculation of credit exposure using CCF:
a) Rs.1000 cr x 20% = 200 cr.
b) Rs.500 cr x 100% = 500 cr
c) Rs.200 cr x 50% = 100 cr
d) Rs.1000 cr x 50% = 500 cr
e) Rs.400 cr x 100% = 400 cr t) Rs.100 cr x 20% = 20 cr

Calculation of Risk weight on the above credit exposure:
a) Rs. 200 crOut of this for 20% i.e. Rs.40 cr x 20% = 8 cr (20% is for AAA rated companies where risk weight is 20%)
Out of this for 80% i.e. Rs.160 cr x 100% = 160 cr (for this the risk weight is 100%)
b) Rs.500 cr x 50% = 250 cr (for A rated companies, the risk weight is 50%)
c) Rs.100 crOut of this for 50% i.e. Rs.50 cr x 30% = 15 cr (risk weight is 30% for AA rated companies)
Out of this for 50% i.e. Rs.50 cr x 100 = 50 cr (risk weight is 100% for unrated companies)
d) Rs.500 crOut of this for 50% i.e. Rs.250 cr x 50% = 125 cr (risk weight is 50% for A rated companies)
Out of this for 50% i.e. Rs.250 cr x 100% = 250 cr (risk weight is 100% for unrated companies)
e) Rs.400 cr x 30% = 120 cr (risk weight is 30% for AA ratedcompanies)
f) 20 cr x 20% = 4 cr (risk weight for confirming banks is 20%).
Total amount of risk weight assets from (a) to. (f)
8+ 160 + 250 + 15 + 50 + 125 + 250 + 120 4= 982
Minimum capital fund required for risk weighted assets of Rs.982 cr = 982 x 9% = Rs.88.38 cr

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  Case study - 1 : Calculation of Capital Fund (Fund based)
Posted by: manish - 06-12-2015, 07:26 PM - Forum: CASE STUDIES - No Replies

Calculation of Capital Fund (Fund based)

Popular Bank is a leading bank in public sector and its balance sheet as on 31.03.2008 reveals the following inter-bank call money market
lending and refinance & loans to other banks:

1 Call money lending Rs.1100 cr which comprises: a)Rs.500 cr to a public sector bank having CRAR of 10%, b)Rs.300 cr to a private bank
having CRAR of 14%, c)Rs.200 cr to a scheduled bank having CRAR of 8%, d)Rs.50 cr to a non-scheduled bank with CRAR of 16%,e)Rs.50cr to another non-scheduled bank with CRAR of 5.5%.
2. Loans and refinance to other banks as under: a)Rs.300 cr to a scheduled bank with CRAR of 5.5% b)Rs.200 cr to a non-scheduled bank with CRAR of 15% c)Rs.100 cr to a non-scheduled bank with CRAR of 8.5%.

What will be amount of capital fund required for this purpose and what will be the minimum or maximum amount of Tier I and Tier II
capital. 
The RBI guidelines on the issue are as under:
RBI guidelines: The claims on banks incorporated in India and foreign bank branches in India, will be risk weighted as under:
(i) All claims on scheduled banks, which comply with the minimum CRAR (9% presently), will be risk weighted at 20%.
(ii) All claims on non scheduled banks which meet the minimum CRAR (9% presently), will be assigned a risk weight of 100%.
(iii) Claims on other scheduled and non scheduled banks will be assigned a risk weight as applicable to the bank's CRAR position as under:

a)CRAR of 6 to < 9 : For scheduled bank - 50% and for non-scheduled bank 150%
b)CRAR of 3 to < 6 : For scheduled bank - 100% and for nonscheduled bank 250%
c)CRAR of 0 to < 3 : For scheduled bank - 150% and for nonscheduled bank 350%

Negative CRAR: For scheduled bank or non-scheduled bank 625% Solution: Risk weight for Call money lending to other banks:
a) 500 cr x 20% = 100 cr b) 300 cr x 20 %= 60 cr c) 200 cr x 50% = 100 cr d) 50 cr x 100% = 50 cr
e) 50 cr x 250% = 125 cr

Total amount of risk weight for call money lending = 435 cr Risk weight for loan and refinance to other banks: a) 300 cr x 100% =
300 cr b) 200 cr x 100% = 200 cr c) 100 cr x 150%= 150 cr

Total amount of risk weight for loans/refinance = 650 cr Total amount risk weight assets = 435 + 650 cr = Rs.1085 cr. Total capital
fund requirement = 1085 x 9% = Rs.97.65 cr Tier I capital should be minimum 50% = Rs.48.825 cr Tier II capital can be maximum
50% = Rs.48.825 cr

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  CREDIT CARD OPERATIONS OF BANKS
Posted by: ruchi - 06-11-2015, 10:19 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Advanced Bank Management - No Replies

CREDIT CARD OPERATIONS OF BANKS



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  CAIIB - General Bank Management
Posted by: rakesh_123 - 06-11-2015, 07:31 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Advanced Bank Management - No Replies

CAIIB - General Bank Management



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  RISKS IN FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS
Posted by: pradeep_iob - 06-10-2015, 08:27 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Bank Financial Management - No Replies

DEFINITION OF RISK
A risk can be defined as "uncertainties which may result in reduced earnings or outright loss" in the context of
financial transactions"
RISKS IN FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS
Foreign exchange is a highly volatile commodity. The volume of foreign exchange transactions undertaken by the
banks is also increasing day by day because of liberalization of foreign trade and steps being initiated towards
globalization. Therefore, a strict discipline and internal controls emanating from Dealing Room are necessary to
avoid loss and to be on the safer side. The different types of Risks that exist in Forex operations are as follows:
EXCHANGE RISK :Foreign Exchange Risk is the risk which the banks face when they deal in multi-currencies and
take positions in these currencies. As is known, foreign market is open 24 hours of the day and the values of the
currencies are being determined every second by the markets factoring in all the information that come in to their
hands then and there. Demand, supply, balance of payments, trade deficit, government borrowings, inflation,
interest rate and political environment are the fundamentals which influence the markets. Using this information,
fluctuations in currencies are anticipated to a certain extent, but the element of uncertainty will always be there.
This element of uncertainty which may result in the value of the Currency ( in which the assets are held)
depreciating is called the Exchange risk. Banks necessarily get in to different positions in foreign currencies due to
merchant transactions entered with their constituents. An open position (open to risk) arises when the assets and
outstanding contracts to purchase that particular currency. (Forward purchase contracts) exceed the liability plus
outstanding sale contracts in that currency. Here, the bank has a long (overbought) _position. If the value of the
currency in terms of other currencies remains same, there is no risk. For example, let us say the ,,bank has an
open position in USD at USD 1 million. Today, it would get Rs.45 million against USD. Overnight if the rupee
appreciates against the dollar by a rupee (for example), the value of the holdings in USD in terms of the Indian
rupee would then
go down by one million rupees. Similar risks arise in oversold positions also. Thus exchange risks are inevitable if
there are open positions.
TYPES OF EXCHANGE RISK

TRANSACTION EXPOSURE: Transaction exposure measures the risk involved due to a change in the foreign
exchangerate between the time, the transaction is executed and the time it is settled..
TRANSLATION EXPOSURE: This relates to valuation of foreign currency assets and liabilities at the end of
accounting year realizable values. These losses and gains are also known as accounting losses/gains. For example, if the bank has
granted a foreign currency loan (FCL or PCFC) for USD 100,000. to a customer and has accounted for the loan at
Rs.45 /USD in its books, The asset value would appear eroded if the rate at the end of the accounting year shows
Rs.44/USD. It may be noted that the asset° value continues at USD100,000 only but in the books of the bank
which is written in INR, there is value erosion. Translation losses affect a bank's accounting profits and
consequently valuations of banks in the market will suffer. This is significant for banks which have overseas
branches and subsidiaries. It is important to note that Translation exposures will ultimately become transaction
exposure when the asset or liability is actually converted / realized.
MANAGING FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK
The magnitude of this risk is dependent on the level of exposures. Level of exposure is the only element, which is
within one's control. The first step in Forex risk management is therefore fixing its open foreign exchange open
position limits.
These open position limits are classified as two types. Daylight limit & Overnight limits
Overnight limits are the maximum amounts the bank is willing to put at risk at the time the foreign exchange
market is closed in the time-zone in which the bank is operating.
Daylight limits refers to the maximum amount that the bank is willing to put at risk at any point during the
dealing day.
The Daylight limit is normally higher because:
The dealers need a higher limit to accommodate client flows during business hours. It is easier to manage
exchange risk when the markets are open. Overnight position is lower being susceptible to uncertainty during the
time when the dealer is not viewing the markets which are active elsewhere in the world. The overall limits fixed
by the top management are further distributed amongst the various dealing rooms (if more than one is present),
within each centre, dealer wise limits are allocated such that the aggregates fall within the stipulated limits.
During the day real-time monitors are in place and overnight-day end positions are aggregated and checked.
Mismatched Positions and Gap limits: If the maturity spread between foreign currency assets and liabilities are at
variance, a mismatched position would arise. Mismatched positions lead to gaps which have to be bridged using
various hedge tools. Banks have to be particularly careful if liabilities mature earlier to assets as t he risk is higher
(It may become difficult to borrow funds at reasonable cost or conclude a deal & ensure that bank has necessary
foreign currency funds to meet the liability on due dates)
COUNTRY RISK: Country Risk may be defined as the risk to operating cash flows, or to the value of investment,
resulting from operating in a particular country. At the macro level, Country Risk includes both sovereign risk and
currency risk. The major elements of Country Risk are: Economic Risks• Political Risks • Social and Cultural
Risks.
Political stability, in itself may not be a sufficient reason for not doing business with or in a country. The Banks
need to look at all the dimensions of country before reaching a conclusion on whether or not to do business with a
particular country. Banks are required to formulate a Country Risk Management Policy (CRM) for dealing with the
country risk problems only in respect of that country, where a bank's net funded exposure is 2 per cent or more
of its total assets. The CRM policy should stipulate rigorous application of the 'Know Your Customer' (KYC)
principle in international activities
which should not be compromised by availability of collateral or shortening of maturities. Country risk element'
should be explicitly recognized while assessing the counter-party risk.
Provisioning I Capital requirement: Banks in India have to make provisions (with effect from the year ending
31 March 2003)on the net funded country exposures on a graded scale ranging from 0. 25 to 100 per cent,
according to the risk categories
CREDIT RISKS : Credit Risk arises when a party to a contract is either unable or unwilling to perform his
obligation of a contract. The failure to execute may also be due to official regulation. Thus the risk associated with
default is the element of credit risk in foreign exchange transactions. The default risk has: two elements
associated with it. These are termed as "Revaluation Risk" and Settlement Risk".
Revaluation Risk: It is the cost (in the event of a counter party default) of replacing non-settled contracts. For
example, if ABC
bank needs USD One million on a particular day and gets in to a contract with XYZ Bank for getting the dollars, it
will suffer the revaluation risk being the cost associated with arranging for USD One million at short notice if XYZ
Bank defaults in its contractual obligation of selling the required USD One million as per its contractual obligation
to ABC Bank.
Settlement Risk: Let us say that a bank buys USD 1 million from Bank B. What if after receiving the INR
equivalent, Bank B fails to deliver the foreign currency? This risk of the Counter-party failing to deliver is known
as Settlement risk. Famously known as the Herstatt or Temporal Risk, this risk is incurred 'By Chance" where one
party honors the contract but the other party fails to do so because it is across border and the business hours on
the other end are either over, or have not yet started. Such risks occur when counter parties are located in
different time zones. This is called Herstatt risk because in 1974, several banks that had entered in to
transactions with Bank Herstatt in Germany faced losses when Herstatt bank was put under liquidation after the
transactions were initiated by these banks but before they were settled by the German bank due to the difference
in the time-zone. Herstatt risk can be controlled by matching the time zones (notionally) and also by putting
counter-party limits in place.
LEGAL RISK: Legal risks are the risk of non-enforceability of a contract.
SYSTEMIC RISK: The risk of the entire system collapsing due to collapse of a major institution. In recent times-
Subprime crisis in major banks in U.S.A led to a chain of events but was fortunately halted by the US Fed & other
Investors taking prompt action)
OPERATIONAL RISK: Risk arising out of human errors, frauds, technology failures etc. Operational risk arises as
a result of human, machine failures, judgmental errors, frauds and so on. The very famous case of judgmental
errors and trading by a single individual (a dealer called Nick Lesson) resulting in the collapse of his bank itself
(Barings—UK) and recently Jerome Kerviel of Societe General resulting in multibillion losses are well known
examples of operational risk.
For effective control of suck risks few measures as follows are commonly taken: Segregating Dealing,
Accounting (Back-up) and Control (Audit). Each of these functions should be independent of the others such that
checks and balances are in place.

Proper information channels should be in place Selection, training and Job rotation of staff in key positions is
critical to risk management in these areas. Reconciliation of Nostro accounts (with mirror accounts) and control
Over Nostro transactions, funding. Concurrent and on-site audits. Review mechanism to analyze losses and
investigate reasons Proper security systems. Here Security involves both physical security of Hardware and digital
security.
DERIVATIVES- ORIGIN & ROLE IN RISK MANAGEMENT : Derivatives are hedging instruments derived from
the values of the underlying exposures such as commodities, currencies or shares and bonds. Derivatives are
financial contracts which derive their value off a spot price time-series, which is called the "underlying". Common
derivative instruments are Forward contracts, Options, Swaps, Forward rate agreements, and 'Futures.
Derivatives do not have independent existence without underlying product and market. The underlying assets
could be a stock index, a foreign currency, a commodity or an individual stock. The simplest form of derivatives is
the forward contract (known as the forefather of the derivatives).
FUNCTIONS OF DERIVATIVES: The primary purpose of the derivative instruments is not to borrow or lend
funds but to transfer prii risks associated with fluctuation in asset values. The derivatives provide three important
economic functions viz.
a) Risk Management. b) Price Discovery c) Transnational Efficiency.
TYPES OF DERIVATIVES: The commonly used derivatives are as follows: a) Forward contracts b) Futures
c) Options d) Swaps
FORWARD CONTRACTS:'Authorized dealers (Banks) have been permitted under FEMA to enter in to Forward
contracts for sale or purchase of Foreign Currency with their customers who are exposed to foreign currency risks
arising out of their normal transactions which are permitted under current regulations. The mechanism of Forward
Contract is very simple. On being approached by a customer for a forward cover, the AD would satisfy himself
that there exists a genuine exposure and quote a rate. For example, if an Importer who is required to pay an
inward bill maturing after one month may approach his banker for a forward cover. This is because the importer is
either risk averse or feels that the rupee / dollar rate would move against him in the intervening month. The bank
would then quote a forward rate. If the customer is satisfied with the quotation, he would sign the contract which
would bind him to the rate and the date. Contract documents are signed and charges if any are collected. If the
customer fails to perform his part of the contract, the contract is cancelled and Swap charges are recovered
where necessary. Similar contracts can be entered in to different customers based on their requirements. In other
words subject to RBI / FEDAI guidelines, banks enter in to contracts to seli or buy specified amount of foreign
currency- on specified futUre dates.

Forward Contracts are either Forward purchase contracts or Forward Sale contracts depending on the nature of
the transaction. Exporters, NRIs, holders and so on would enter in to Forward purchase contracts. Importers,
Constituents who have to make payments under foreign currency loans and so on would enter in to Forward sale
contracts. It is again emphasized that the word purchase and Sale are used from the point of view of the Bank
and not the customer. Forward Contracts in India are governed by RBI guidelines and FEDAI rules RBI has
permitted all entities having Exchange risk exposures permission to enter in to Forward contracts subject to rules
and limits
FUTURE CONTRACTS: A future contract is defined as a "commitment to buy or sell at a specified future
settlement date a designated amount of commodity or a financial asset. It is a legally binding contract by two
parties to make / take delivery of commodity at Certain point of time in the future.

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  FOREIGN CURRENCY FORWARD RATE CONTRACTS
Posted by: aparna - 06-09-2015, 08:12 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Bank Financial Management - Replies (1)

FOREIGN CURRENCY FORWARD RATE CONTRACTS
All Forward contracts should be for a definite period and amount. In case delivery date has not been specified, an
option period of maximum one month may be given. In case the last date for delivery happens to be non-working
day for Forex dealing, preceding working day will be considered for effecting delivery.
All contracts, which have matured and have not been picked up, shall be automatically cancelled on the rh day
after the maturity Date.
EXCHANGE RATES MECHANISM
Consequent to Liberalization, RBI has removed all restrictions on exchange rate quotations. Therefore, Indian
currency is on a boating rate system. Banks are now free to quote their own rates based on market rates. Market
rates are determined by forces I Demand and Supply. By convention, exchange rates can be quoted in two ways
viz.
DIRECT METHOD: A given number of units-of focal currency per (47 otioreign currency e.g. US$ 1= Rs. 45.00

INDIRECT METHOD: A given number of units of foreign currency per given units of local currency e.g. Rs. 100 =
US$ 2.222 India, it was the practice to use the Indirect method of quotation. The unit in India was Rs. 100.
However, with effect from 2ndus 1993 direct quotations are being used.
TWO- WAY QUOTATION: The foreign exchange quotation by the Bankbas two rates — one at which the quoting
Bank is willing buy and the other at-which it is willing to sell. For example: U S $ I = Rs 45.00 - 45,20 ere the
Bank will enter into purchase transaction at Rs 45.00 and Self transaction at Rs 45.20. Hence the principle; Buy
low & all, high.
RATES: This rate is applied when the transaction does not involve-any -delay in realization of the foreign
exchange by the ink. In other words, the Nostro account of the bank would already have been credited. TT Buying
rate is arrived at each bankdeducting its required margin from the inter-bank buying rate that is being quoted in
the market. • w example, if SBI (market) is quoting US$1 = INR 44.20/25 in...the-market, JOB which needs to
arrive at its TT Buying rate pending on the market rate will quote as follows;
20 minus its desired margin of say 0 .15% as follows:
20 - 0.15% of 44.20 = 44.1337 (may be rounded to 44:1335)
ire it is presumed that 10B will quote 44.1337 to the CUStoitier, buy dollars from him and sell it in the market SBI
in this ample) at 4.4 20.The difference goes in to the margin (profit) account of 10B.

BILL BUYING RATES: These rates apply when foreign bills, are purchased. Banks build in higher margins in Bill
buying to factor the higher risk and transaction costs. For Usance bills, banks quote rates taking the forward
premium or discount on the rrency for matching future periods also in to consideration.

FORAWARD RATES: When the delivery has to take place at a date farther than the spot date, then it is a
forward transaction 'aced out on Forward. rate. A currency could be quoted at a higher ('Premium') or a lower
('Discount') rate tar future liveries. Given the connection, between exchange rates and funds.cost in a totally free
market, the premium / discount on wards would tend to equal the difference in interest rates inthe IWO
currencies.
ARIVING AT FORWARD RATES: Forward rates are arrived as follows under normal circumstances
If the currency is quoted at a premium : Forward rate = Spot rate + Premium
If the currency is being quoted at a discount : Forward rate = Spot rate - Discount
Spot price.
Interestrate differentials in the currencies involved. -Term or tenor of the quote (One month, two month etc ).
Clean inward _remittances (PO, MT, TT, DD) for which cover has already been credited to ADs account abroad.
Conversion of proceeds of instruments sent for collection.
Cancellation of outward TT, MT, PO etc. Cancellation of a forward sale contract.'Bill Buying Rate Purchase /
Discounting of Bills and other Instruments.Where bank has to claim cover after payment. Where drawing bank at
one centre remits cover for credit to a different center. Foreign - TCs / Currency Notes:
Applied for purchase of Foreign TCs & Currency
EXCHANGE ARITHMETIC : During the course of their business, banks acquire FX from their Exporter/NRI and
other customers and sell FX to their Importer /other customers. They purchase and sell FX like any other
commodity. They have to cover their transaction costs after adding some profit too. Earlier the Foreign Exchange
Dealers' Association of India (FEDAI) used to issue guidelines for computing rates and bank charges for FX
transactions. However, FEDAI has given freedom to the banks for calculating rates / fixing charges for merchant
transactions. Therefore, in India, now FX rates are determined by market forces of Demand and Supply.
BANKS QUOTE BASED ON MARKET RATES: In practice, Exchange rates are quoted based on SPOT rates
available in the markets. Banks can choose from various sources and decide the market participant for their deal.
Let us say, the Market participant is quoting rates as follows for USD as: USD 1 = 46.25/35.
This means they will buy dollars at 46.25 and sell at 46.35.
SCENARIO-1: BANK HAS TO PURCHASE AN EXPORT BILL:
An Exporter has approached the bank with a bill denominated in US Dollars. He wants to know at whit rate the
Bank will buy the bill from him. The dealer knows once he buys the dollar bill from his customer, he has to sell it
in the market at Rs 46.25. If he has to make a profit in this transaction, he has to quote a figure lesser than Rs
46.25 to the customer. The difference which is called margin depends upon the Bank's policy. Assuming that the
bank wants to make a 0.1% margin, the dealer will do the following calculations. Rate at which the Market buys
from him : 46.25000
Less 0.1% of 46.25 (46.25 X 0.10/100) : 0.04625
Rate to be quoted to Customer : 46.20375 rounded to 46.20
(Hint: Rounding off depends on the rule given in the problem)
Thus, the bank will reduce its required margin from Market Buying rate and quote a suitable rate to the
customer.
SCENARIO-2: BANK HAS TO QUOTE A SELLING RATE TO AN IMPORTER
Let us say an Importer wants to retire a bill in US $. Bank has to now quote a selling rate to him. Once again the
Dealer will turn to the Market rates. This time, he needs to buy the Dollars from the market and sell them to the
Importer after making sure that his profits are assured Assuming that the Bank wants the same 0.1% margin
here also, the Dealer would do the following calculations: Rate at which the Market would sell him dollars : 46.35
Add Required Margin (46.35 X 0.1/100) : 0.04635
Rate at which Bank will sell to the customer : 46.39635 rounded to 46.40
SUMMARY : Margins are reduced from Market buying rates to arrive at Bank's buying rates.
Margins are added to Market selling rates to arrive at -Bank's selling rates:—
'Banks add different margins to different transactions depending on—their policy, risks. Transaction costs, stature
of the customer, current positions in the currency to be quoted under the same formula. In a Direct rate scenario,
the maxim is always "Buy low and Sell high"
EXAMPLES: If the market is quoting GBP 1=78.60/80, at what rate can your Bank buy GBP from the market?
Answer: GBP1=78.80
1. If you have to quote a TT buying rate for GBP with a 0.20% margin, what will be the quote if the market is
quotingGBP 1=78.50/70 round off to two decimals?
Answer:Market buying rate = 78.500, Less Margin @0.2% =0.157 , Rate to be quoted = 78.343 Rounded to
78.34
3.Inflow of USD 100,000.00 by TT for credit to your exporter’s account, being advance payment for exports
(credit received in Nostro statement received from New York correspondent). What rate will be applied if the
market is quoting 45.40/50 for USD. As the customer is very valuable, you are not collecting any margin in
this transaction:
Answer: When we apply rate to the TT received, we are purchasing USD from customer, we have to sell it in the
market. Market buys USD at Rs. 45.40. We shall have to quote rate based on 45.40, less our margin. Since we
don’t intend making any margin here as stated in the sum, the rate quoted will be USD1=45.40.
4.Your foreign correspondent maintaining a Nostro. Rupee account_ with your' bank, wants to fund his account
by purchase of Rs. 30.00 million, against US dollars. Assuming that the USD / INR interbank market is at
45.2550 .1 2650, what rate would be quoted to the correspondent, ignoring exchange margin. Calculate
amount of USD you would receive in your USD Nostra account, if the deal is struck.

Answer: The Correspondent wants to credit INR 30 million i.e. INR 300,00,000 (Rs 3 crones). He will be placing
corresponding amount of dollars in our Nostro account with a request to convert and credit to his Rupee account
with us. In other words, we will be purchasing dollars from him and therefore have to quote a USD buying rate to
him.
Market rates (also called Inter-bank rates) are USD 45.2550/2650
Market buys from us at : 45.2550,Less margin (nil here) :,Rate to be quoted : 45.2550
Amount of dollars required for INR 30,00,00,00 is 30,00,00,00 = USD 662910.175 or USD 662,910.18 If the deal
is struck, the foreign bank would pay USD 662,910.18 to our USD Nostra account.
CROSS RATES : At times, direct quotes are not available for certain pairs of currencies in the market. For
example, we may have a quote for INR/USD and another for USD/GBP. However INR/GBP may not be readily
quoted. In such situations dealers arrive at INR/GBP rates using the Cross rate mechanism and the Chain rule.
CHAIN RULE :
Rule for arriving at a comparison or ratiu between two quantities which are linked together through another
quantity and consists of a series of equations, commencing with a statement of the problem in the form of a
query and continuing the equation in the form of a chain so that each equation must start in terms of the same
quantity as that which concluded the previous equation. 1)You have to quote Cross rate for retirement of Import
bill for GBP 100,000by TT. Your margin is 0.15%. Market rate quotations are GBP / USD 1.8300 / 10, USD / INR
45.40/50.
Answer: This is an Import bill settlement, we have to sell the required FX i.e. GBP 100,000 to the customer. We
have to
thereforePuy this required sum of GBP 100,000 from the market. i--10.ru $ 1(ZThe
market is selling GBP as-I-GB11)1-.8300/83TrisFte-r3fore, first we need USD.
To buy USD, the rates quoted are 1USD = 45.40/50.
Since we are buying, the market rate will be USD 1=45.50.
We need to pay USD 1.8310 to get 1GBP.
Therefore we need (1.8310 X 45.50) INR. i.e. INR 83.3105 to buy 1 GBP. We have to add our margin which is
0.15% Final rate will be (INR 83.3105) plus ( 0.15% of 83.3105=0.1250) = 83.4355(TT selling rate)
2) M/s PQRS wants to remit JPY 10.00 million by TT value spot, as pa payment of an Import invoice.
Given that USD / INR is at 45.2500/45.2600 and USD / JPY is 108.15 / 108.25, and a margin of 0.15% is to be
loaded to the exchange rate, calculate rate to be quoted and the Rupee amount to be debited to the account of
M/s PQRS .
Answer: Since JPY is to be sold against Rupee, and the rate is not directly given, we would use cross rate
mechanism to calculate the same. We need to buy USD against INR and use the USD to buy JPY for the deal.
Thus, USD / INR rate would be 45.2600 (market USD selling rate — high) and USD / JPY at 108.15 (market JPY&
selling rate low). The JPY / INR rate would be 45.2600 / 108.15 = 0.418492 per JPY
100 JPY = 41.8492.
Add: Margin of 0.15 = 0.0628
41.9120
Rounded off to = 41.9100/100 JPY
Total rupee amount to be debited to the account of M/s PQRS would thus be 10,00,0000 X 41.9100= Rs.
41,91,000(Note: JPY is quoted as per 100 Yen, as per FEDAI guidelines)
FORWARD RATES : As we are aware, banks have to quote forward rates in certain cases such as:
While entering in to a Forward Sale or Forward.Purchase Contract, While discounting a Usance Bill.
By definition, Forward rates are rates quoted beyond Spot deliveries i.e. beyond T + two working days. While
quoting Forward rates, Banks take cognizance of Forward rates quoted by the markets.
The currency may be trading at a higher price (premium) or a lower price (discount) compared to the Spot prices.
The Forward rates are arrived at as follows: If !he Currency is at a Premium Forward rate = Spot rate + Premium
If the Currency is at Discount.Forward rate =Spot rate — Discount
After arriving at rates as above, Banks will build in their margins (add or reduce as the case may be) and quote
the final Forward rate to the customer.
1) On 5 January, Exporters tenders for discounting, e)pottbill_for US 500,000.00, drawn 90 days sight (transit
period 25 days) due date 30 April. Compute applicable rate and amount to be credited, presuming:
Exchange margin of 0.15%,
Spot Rupee 45.40/50 and premium Spot — April 40 paise,
Rate to be quoted to nearest 0.25 paise, and rupee amount to be rounded off, and
Interest to be charged at 7.50% for first 90 days and 10.50% thereafter. Answer:
Calculation of Bill buying rate
Spot Rate Rs. 45.4000
Less: 0.15% margin 0.06'$1 f
45.3319,Say 45.3325
Add: April Premium_ .4000
Rate of the transaction (Bill Buying Rate) 45.7325 ,Calculation of amount payable to the customer: USD
500,000.0J at 45.7325 = 2,28,66,250.00, Interest 90 days @ 7.50% = 4,22,869.00, 25 days @ 10.50 =
1,64,449.00
Amount payable to exporter = 2,22,78,932.00 (Commission and out of pocket expenses ignored)
2) On 15 September, a customer request for booking of a Forward contact for export bill of USD 150,000.00, to
be realized in the month of December.

 Answer:
For calculating rate for forward purchase contract, we need to take forward premium for November, the one that
the market would pay, i. e. 30 paise. Convention: For a sale contract premium for the full period, up to end date
of the contract shall be charged where as for Spot rate as 45.40, Premium : 0.30, Forward : Rate 45 .70
Forward Inter-bank rate arrived is 45.70 and deduct 0.05 paise as margin to arrive at 45.65 as customer forward
rate for delivery of export proceeds during December, full month at the option of the customer (Forward TT
Buying Rate).
3)On 1 January 2004, a customer requests to book Forward contract, for retirement of import bill for USD
100,000.00, due for payment on 15 March 2004. Given rates Spot / INA-4-6.00/95orward premium as under:
Spot January: 10/12, Spot February : 21/23, Spot March :32/34, Feb-15 to March: 5/6
Charge Margin of 0.20%, Answer: Being a merchant sale forward booking transaction, rate would be calculated as
under:
USD / INR spot to be taken as 46.05, Premium payable : Spot February 23 paise
Feb — 15th March 6 paise ,Add: Total premium 29 paise 0.29
Thus IB forward rate would be: 46.34
Add: Margin 0.20% 0.09,,patefor customer 46.43

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  Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India (FEDAI)
Posted by: harpreet_kour - 06-09-2015, 08:00 PM - Forum: CAIIB-- Bank Financial Management - Replies (2)

Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India (FEDAI) is registered under Companies Act 1956, and was
incorporated in the year 1958. The Association has been recognized by Reserve Bank of India, as well as Govt. of
India. The main functions of FEDAI are to lay down uniform rules and guidelines to be observed by all authorized
dealers in India. Some of its functions are:
1) Maintaining a close liaison with RBI and Govt. of India.
2) Maintaining a liaison with International Chamber of Commerce and other world bodies related to foreign trade
and business.
3) To circulate various policies matters and decisions related to foreign exchange business amongst the members.
4) Represents Indian foreign exchange dealers on policy matters related to foreign exchange dealings.
5) Maintaining of FEDAI rules regarding Transit period, Crystallization, Forward covers etc., that govern all the
members.
6) Other functions include approving Foreign Exchange brokers.
IMPORTANT FEDAI RULES:
1) All cancellations shall be at bank's opposite TT rates, TT selling rate for purchase contract and TT buying rate
for sale contract.-
2) In the event of delay in payment of Interbank foreign currency funds, interest at 2% above the prime rate of
the currency of the specified banks shall be paid by the seller bank.
3) In event of delay in payment of rupee settlement funds, interest for delayed period at 2% above NSE MIBOR
ruling on each day.
4) FEDAI, also prescribes code of conduct for Forex dealers, as also guidelines with regard to dealings with Forex
brokers.
IMPORTANT FEDAI RULES:

HOURS OF BUSINESS: Left at the discretion of the banks now. Extended business hours for dealers, if any,
should be approved by respective management.
RATES: ADs will quote exchange rates in direct terms. All currencies to be quoted as — per unit of foreign
currency = INR, while JPY to be quoted as 100 units of JPY = INR.
EXPORT BILLS FOR COLLECTION: In the event of ADs delay of payment to the exporter, they will pay interest
from date of realization to the date of actual payment. ADs may utilize 1 to 3 claim to release payment depending
upon the distance/location of branch where payment has to be remitted.
CRYSTALLIZATION: Unpaid Export bills should be crystallized at TT selling rate. Earlier FEDAI rule made it
mandatory to crystallize unpaid demand bills 30 days after the transit period and Usance bills, 30 days after the
due date. However FEDAI has given the authorized dealers the freedom to decide-on the period for crystallization
which may be linked to risk factors like credit perception of different types of exporter clients, operational aspects
etc. In case the bills are realized after crystallization, TT Buying rate is to be applied.
IMPORTS: Unpaid foreign currency bills drawn under L/C will be crystallized on le day from due date at Bills
Selling Rates or Contracted rates.
INWARD REMITTANCES: All foreign currency inward remittances equivalent to Rs. one lac should immediately
be converted in Indian rupees. Inward remittance for more than Rs. one lac may be converted at the request of
the customer but within the ) permissible period. If the payment of inward remittance is delayed, ADs will pay
interest @ 2% over the applicable to SB accounts after a period of 10 days, for remittances up to Rs one lac and
for 3 days after remittance for more than Rs one lac.

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